To strengthen the capacity of the TVET professionals at school and institutional level for better quality assessment, improvement, planning, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation, TAGHEER has been awarded to Revise and Pilot the currently available School Improvement Plan (SIP) in formal schools and institutes. The Pilot upon consolidation will be rolled out in all TVET institutes starting 2024.
The project is implemented by Shanti Volunteer Association (a Japanese NGO) in Kunar’s province. TAGHEER is currently monitoring the Community based child and Accelerated learning classes. The process includes class observation, EGRA / EGMA tests with students, and surveys and interviews with teachers, parents and SMCs (school management shuras). The project started in April and will run until the end of Dec, 2023.
A study conducted by TAGHEER in partnership with CMI (Chr. Michelsen Institute), Bergen, Norway. The project reviewed the interlinkages between displacement, refugee and IDP settlements, and environmental changes in Kabul Afghanistan, using focus group discussion (FGD) and key-informant interviews, which helped CMI i) to examine the historical context of human migration/displacement, settlement proliferation, livelihood transition, environmental change, food security and human well-being, and; ii) understand changes in water resources in light of environmental, socio-economic and institutional changes.
It was the 3rd round of assessment conducted by TAGHEER for the World Bank (WB) to monitor the situation and operational status of the private sector amid the political crisis unleashed after August 2021. The first two rounds of the assessment were led by the WB team themselves. In this round, TAGHEER conducted 422 surveys with small, medium, and large men and women-owned businesses operating in agribusiness, manufacturing, services, construction, retail, and trade sectors within five economic zones (Kabul, Balkh, Nangarhar, Kandahar, and Herat) to institutionalize the assessment exercise and to maintain updated information on the continually evolving situation of the private sector in Afghanistan. TAGHEER also shared challenges and suggested solutions with World Bank to inform the design of any potential future supportive engagements for the private sector during this challenging time.
The assessment was conducted for CARE International in nine (9) provinces of Afghanistan. The MSNA focused on 21 districts within the selected provinces to help inform project design for lifesaving responses in the sectors of Education, health, nutrition, livelihood, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and integrated Gender-Based Violence (GBV).
TAGHEER shared a comprehensive report with CARE to include, information about the gaps and needs of local people, provided recommendations on programming / sectorial priorities to be addressed, the impact of current ban on crises affected communities including women, men, boys, and girls.
A continuation of the HE assessment for UNESCO by TAGHEER. The Gender analysis was to better understand the status of women’s and girls’ access to university post August 2021 regime changes; the scope and quality of their programs; and the range of barriers they face to enrolment, persistence and application of their learning.
The assessment captured the policies, programs and gaps in the period prior to the regime change (2001-2021) that had been enabling or impeding progress on gender equality in Higher Education in order to establish the base for analysis of the current situation since August 2021.
The assessment was conducted to respond to the needs of affected population in rural and urban districts (57 communities) of three target provinces- Balkh, Kunduz, and Kunar through funding from ECHO; Johanniter International Assistance (JIA) and HADAAF. The assessment analyzed human needs and priorities in Health, WASH, Nutrition, Livelihood, and Protection sectors through conducting FGDs (gender specific), KIIs, and surveys with stakeholders and local communities (men and women).
Livelihoods and Integrated Health and WASH Service Strengthening and Support for Displaced Populations in Afghanistan (WAQAR), was a 2 and a half years program funded by UNOPS and implemented by CARE International in Kabul and Khost provinces.
TAGHEER conducted the baseline assessment for this program using a cross-sectional methodology to establish quantitative and qualitative baseline values against the log frame indicators particularly at outcome level. The baseline values informed CARE to review the project indicators, targets for necessary adjustment and also report if the project assumptions stand true at this stage.
TAGHEER was contracted by UNESCO to collect to up-to-date information on higher education, which has been a key challenge post August 15 2021. TAGHEER conducted the situational analysis at national level and at 53 public and private universities across Afghanistan.
FGDs with teachers, KIIs with Vice-Chancellors of the Education and Finance Departments, Surveys with university officials and administration staff, and Physical observation of universities collecting information on infrastructure were carried out to respond to the study objectives and help understand access to and quality of higher education offered at universities as well as the university needs and existing gaps. The analysis also explored opportunities and challenges in order to facilitate information-driven programming by partners and stakeholders including UNESCO and MoHE for higher education development in Afghanistan.
TAGHEER partnered up with Trust Consultancy in Turkey to undertake the MTR of the emergency response program run by the Afghan Red Crescent Society (ARCS) with the support of IFRC in Afghanistan. The mid-term evaluation reviewed the program relevance & appropriateness, efficiency & effectiveness, and sustainability & connectedness in 5 selected provinces; Kabul, Kandahar, Badghis, Takhar, and Nuristan.
The evaluation report together with a data validation exercise / Ppt and a photo report were submitted to IFRC as the MTR deliverables.
CARE International implemented a UNDP funded Resilience Building Program in Afghanistan targeting 312,800 vulnerable people.
TAGHEER carried out the baseline / needs assessment of this project using a cross-sectional methodology. The baseline helped CARE International understand) socio-economics & contextual situation; ii) needs of local people & access to essential services; iii) and the resilience capacities to coping with disasters & economic challenges.
TAGHEER carried out field monitoring for Shanti Volunteer Association (SVA). The program was funded by Japan Platform (JPF) to help crises affected / vulnerable people (mainly IDPs and returnees from Pakistan), to meet their emergency needs, and to increase awareness on women’s and child protection issues.
TAGHEER monitored the food packages distribution, hygiene kits distribution, women dignity kits distribution, and conducted KAP surveys with both men and women to understand the hygiene awareness, health improvements, as well as local people practicing women and child protection measures.
TAGHEER was engaged by UN Women to conduct a Rapid Needs Assessment (RNA) in regional provinces of Kabul, Bamyan, Mazar, Herat, Kandahar and Nangarhar to understand women-owned businesses’ needs and challenges – specifically, after the change in power, Covid 19, economic crisis, unemployment, poverty, and livelihood disruption resulting from intersectional vulnerabilities.
TAGHEER interviewed 3,140 women businesses and 20 value chain experts / regulators under this assessment to inform UN Women about their registration status, functionality, profit & loss, coping mechanism, needs, and challenges. The assessment generated evidence base on the post-August 15th needs of women-owned Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs).
The Afghanistan Value Chain (AVC)-Livestock Project assisted Afghanistan to become a formal member of IFF (International Fur Federation) to help increase the sales value of the Afghanistan Karakul sheep Pelts in the international market through certification.
TAGHEER carried out the Karakul Census for DAI / AVC-L in 7 provinces (Balkh, Faryab, Samangan, Sar-e-pul, Jowzjan, Badghis, and Kunduz) and helped them fill the real time information gap about the Karakul count, feeding practices, health care, vaccination, breeding and management as well as Karakul trading.
A four day in-class training and exposure visit program was organized by TAGHEER for a group of 19 Kenya County officials at executive level. Topics including Turkish Economic Reforms and History, Leadership Ingredients & Styles including transformational leadership, Ego as a killer, and Emotional Intelligence and its importance to make leadership a success.
TAGHEER carried out an assessment in Tier 1 and 2 provinces of Afghanistan to collect primary data post the political changes in Aug, 2021. The assessment was to help Trilateral Research, a UK based company answer questions on the humanitarian situation in Afghanistan for a stronger understanding, so that public sector and humanitarian organizations in the UK and Europe could make better and informed decisions around the planning and delivery of humanitarian aid to civilians around their financial situation & needs, jobs availability & security, food and water availability and regular access, and access to and quality of health services available.
Trilateral Research, which is a UK based firm provides regulatory and policy advice; develop new data-driven technologies and contribute to the latest standards in safeguarding privacy, ethics and human rights within the public and private sector for making a difference in enhancing societal wellbeing.
TAGHEER worked for Trilateral Research on a proof-of-concept to collect and share existing open data in Afghanistan about Health security and situation, Political security and stability, and Personal security and available threats.
Aga Khan Foundation (AKF) implemented the Girls in Science Project (GiS) from March 2018 until March 2021 in partnership with the Vitol Foundation. The project aimed at accelerating the future of 21st century science education for adolescent girls (Grade 9-12) in Afghanistan via establishing science clubs in 13 government schools in Baghlan province.
TAGHEER carried out the end-line evaluation to uncover the project achievements against the OECD – DAC criteria and shared best practices & lessons, and human-interest stories to promote science education by supporting the Ministry of Education to adopt science friendly policies.
CARE implemented a 5-years Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment Program to make women economically & socially empowered, so, they participate in public processes and decision- making.
TAGHEER carried out the baseline assessment of this project in Kabul province to explore contextual information on gender norms, power dynamic, gender-based violence against women, and behaviors of male members in communities to validate the project theory of change and establish baseline value for the log frame indicators. Throughout the assessment, TAGHEER in collaboration with CARE reviewed the project literature and spoke with around 500 community people and project stakeholders including GIRoA, advocacy groups, and private sector.
The Afghanistan Quality Learning (AQL) project led by the Aga Khan Foundation (AKF) in collaboration with the Ministry of Education (MoE) was improving the quality and relevance of education in rural areas by supporting interventions at the school, district, provincial, and national levels that strengthen academic supervision, promote teacher development, and improve learning environments.
TAGHEER Mosbat was contracted by AKF to conduct a literature review of the available professional development content and assessment reports to develop short scripts from National curriculum on school administration, academic supervision, and pedagogy skills. The content later was filmed in the form of a digital library; 144 short videos were developed from the already lesson plans / scripts.
The project supported the protection, relief, and recovery components of the Afghanistan National Action Plan (NAP) for the implementation of Security Council Resolution (SCR) 1325 on Women, Peace, and Security.
The evaluation assessed the results of the Strategic Partnership project led by Oxfam over five years, funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands, and implemented in six provinces through 30 Civil Society Organizations (CSOs).
The theory-based mixed-methods approach was utilized to include key informant interviews, focus group discussions, stories of change, and systematic analysis to substantiate outcome cases. Emergent themes were identified through discussion groups and interviews, which were to determine outcome sufficiency for Oxfam future planning.
The Asia Foundation (TAF) supported the Regional Cooperation Directorate (RCD) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA) for leading Afghanistan’s efforts in promoting regional cooperation with neighboring countries on economy, politics, security, agricultural development, women empowerment, poverty reduction, access to water / energy transmission, trade facilitation, and countering narcotics via two big regional cooperation initiatives; RECCA & The HoA – IP as separate and parallel platforms to promote stabilization in Afghanistan and South / Central Asian Countries since 2005 and 2011 respectively.
TAGHEER was contracted by TAF and WADAN to explore and understand the synergies between both cooperation initiatives and inform a policy level discussion within senior Government peers by understanding the commonalities and complementarities of the two Processes and to guide the Government approach towards a more robust regional economic and social integration. TAGHEER carried out key informant interviews with high-level government officials including Ministers and Deputy Ministers to inform if the two Processes at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs need to be merged and unified under the umbrella of the RCD.
Search for Common Ground (Search) is an international conflict transformation NGO Headquartered in Washington DC – USA. TAGHEER was contracted by SEARCH to carry out the final evaluation of their 24-month project (Peace by Piece) implemented in five provinces of Afghanistan. TAGHEER adapted a mixed study approach which included a comprehensive desk review while speaking to more than 500 beneficiaries and stakeholders using surveys, KIIs, and FGDs and collected both qualitative and quantitative data and reported on the project effectiveness against the set targets / objectives. TAGHEER also captured lessons learned as well as shared best practices across project locations, gender, and project interventions to inform future programing by Search.
PARSA, championing social protection issues in Afghanistan implemented a 2-years Capacity Building and job assistance Program to Reintegrate and Resettle people with specific needs including mental health issues, whose migration / settlement cases were rejected in Denmark. The program also supported IDPs with specific needs inside Afghanistan. PARSA established support offices in Kabul, Nangarhar, Balkh, Kandahar, and Herat provinces to pilot the reintegration approach and later roll it out for other returnees from EU countries. TAGHEER provided third-party monitoring (TPM) services to PARSA and the Denmark Ministry of Immigration for the program from August 2020 till August 2021. TAGHEER conducted surveys with returnees and IPDs and reported if the pathways for return and safe reintegration in Afghanistan as a result of the psychosocial assistance and economic engagement provided by PARSA were actually effective.
The Japan Platform “JPF” is an international emergency humanitarian aid organization which offers the most effective and prompt emergency aid in response to global developments, focusing on issues of refugees and natural disasters across 47 nations including Afghanistan.
JPF engaged TAGHEER Mosbat to evaluate the effectiveness of the emergency response they funded, which was implemented by a Japanese NGO, Shanti volunteers Association (SVA). TAGHEER developed the evaluation framework in close coordination with SVA and JPF, developed tools, conducted surveys and key informant interviews with project beneficiaries and stakeholders to verify the project accountability to local people, IDPs, and returnees, and if the work quality was effective.
DACAAR implemented a 3-years Rural Development project in Faryab province to contributes to quality of life for most-at-risk groups such as women & youth-headed HH and disabled. The project was funded by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. TAGHEER carried out the mid-term evaluation of this project to review the community resilience, capacity and livelihoods options if having improved in Faryab in regards to health and livelihood. The aim of the mid-term review was to assess, at the midpoint, whether and to what extent DACAAR’s programs were on the right track, and if it was meeting the expectations.
EVC was a global program, funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs and implemented by CARE International in Burundi, Pakistan, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, and Afghanistan. TAGHEER conducted the final evaluation of this program in Afghanistan using the Outcome Harvesting model for data collection and analysis. The tools included household / beneficiary surveys (around 300), key informant interviews (46), and in-depth interviews (36) to understand and report if the stakeholders and partners capacity has improved enough to mobilize and continue advocacy efforts and inclusive services delivery for women and girls in the targeted communities of Kabul, Khost, Parwan, and Balkh provinces.
OXFAM implemented Amplify Change, a 5-year project supporting Women’s Rights in Herat, Balkh and Nangarhar provinces. The project was funded by Global Affairs Canada (GAC). The project supported Afghan women and girls to participate more effectively in decision-making about their society by engaging and empowering them to use their legal rights.
TAGHEER reviewed the project literature and conducted around 400 structured surveys, KIIs, and FGDs with more than 500 direct and in-direct beneficiaries to triangulate/validate and strengthen the evaluation findings, and to reflect them in the evaluation report.
The Japan Platform “JPF” is an international emergency humanitarian aid organization which focusing on issues of refugees across 47 nations including Afghanistan.
One of the JPF partner NGO; Church World Service Japan (CWS Japan) supported Internally displaced people and Afghan returnees, and residents in Bamyan province for the development of irrigation equipment, cash for work and alternative livelihood (Poultry Farming). Moreover, the alternative means of livelihood generated through the transfer of poultry farming techniques would go to women, helping to mitigate the impact of low incomes due to drought.
TAGHEER evaluated the project log frame indicators and activities accomplished by CWS and the quality of their work to verify the project accomplishments, work accountability, and quality.
Counterpart International (CPI) has implemented a six-year Afghan Civic Engagement program (ACEP) funded by USAID in partnership with Internews, International Center for Not-for-Profit Law (ICNL) and the Aga Khan Foundation (AKF). TAGHEER evaluated the sustainability of the project created structures including the AICS (Afghanistan Institute of Civil Society) and its achievements for the certification program and capacity building services offered to the ACEP Regional and Provincial Partners and CSOs; 67 in total.
The findings and the responses highlighted that CSOs and networks were operational, motivated, and sustainable except for the future prognosis of the Emerging Civil Society Leaders network and the Advocacy Group for the National Budget, which were less likely sustainable both program wise and financially.
AKF-A in collaboration with IDLG implemented a DFID funded Accountable, Citizen-Centered, Sub-National Governance Strengthening Initiative (ACCESS) in six Northern and Central provinces of Afghanistan. TAGHEER conducted the final evaluation of this project. TAGHEER adapted a mixed method evaluation approach comprised of Document Review, Key Informant Interviews with stakeholders at national and sub-national levels including Focus Group Discussions with Community stakeholders and Households.
The evaluation revealed that the models and activities incorporated by AKF-A were implemented by the project teams in cooperation with SNG institutions across the project areas and filled a very important gap for missing good governance and community inclusion in the local government and their decisions; however, the early wind-up of this project didn’t allow AKF-A to complete the planned activities.
The Japan Platform “JPF” is an international emergency humanitarian aid organization. JPF supported the people of Afghanistan particularly Internally displaced people “IDP” and Afghan Returnees from Pakistan through a portfolio of seven (07) different projects implemented by Japanese NGOs. Out of 7 projects, TAGHEER evaluated the effectiveness of 4 projects, while shared information on progress and challenges for the remaining 3 still being implemented. TAGHEER in consultation with JPF and partner NGOs developed M&E plans and tools for each project and interviewed more than 3000 beneficiaries and stakeholders, as well as conducted site observations to verify the project accomplishments, work accountability, and quality towards assisting the IDP, Returnees, and local communities for immediate life support including safe food, cash for work, clean water and sanitation for health improvement, and primary education for their children.
Translation started to avoid communication gap between nations and to enable trade and cultural exchange irrespective of language differences. In Afghanistan, due to being multilingual for the presence of International community; translation is mostly viewed as a job-creating opportunity. TAGHEER through this project, supported identifying 3 professional trainers and 15 qualified translators for the USAID-funded WIE translation training program in Kabul.
The Afghanistan Consortium for Community-based Education and Learning (ACCEL) was a three-year project (2019 – 2022) targeting the children of most vulnerable displaced population in Afghanistan, with a particular focus on girls, IDP and returnees.
TAGHEER performed the baseline study for this education project to provide a comprehensive picture of the learning and teaching environments and focused on the social and infrastructural factors that either support or hinder learning. TAGHEER developed a cross-sectional study design to provide a snapshot of ACCEL’s intended outcomes at the project’s outset.
CPI implemented a six-year Afghan Civic Engagement program (ACEP) funded by USAID in partnership with Internews Networks (Internews), the International Center for Not-for-Profit Law (ICNL) and the Aga Khan Foundation (AKF). TAGHEER evaluated this project to include; a) Sub recipient grantee civic engagement and education activities (including their organizational development); b) Emerging Civil Society Leaders (ECSL) activities, and c) Parliamentary Technical Working Group (PTWG) advocacy and policymaking activities. Around 1600 people/participants were interviewed. An additional organizational development assessment was applied to the 34 Provincial Civil Society Partners (PCPs).
Women in the Economy (WIE) was a USAID-funded program designed to increase women participation in the economy by securing employment or advancing in their careers by assisting women-owned businesses to enhance their revenues.
TAGHEER completed this training and placement project in 8 months and offered 120 hours training course on project monitoring and Data Management to 75 female jobseekers, employees, and entrepreneurs in Kabul. The training program was to learn and utilize the M&E skills for gathering accurate data and cross check it against multiple sources, and transcribe and analyze it to generate actionable recommendations for future improvements.
In 2016, the WV started the implementation of the Instrument contributing to Stability and Peace project (IcSP) as a Support to in-country civil society actors in conflict prevention, peace-building, and crisis preparedness in Herat and Ghor provinces. This project was funded by the European Union (EU) Delegation and represented by the European Commission (EC). In March 2019, WVA contracted TAGHEER to undertake the End-line evaluation for this project. A mixed methods approach was utilized by TAGHEER for the evaluation, consisting of 423 household surveys, 20 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), and 15 Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) across 20 villages in the provinces of Ghor and Herat.
TAGHEER translated 5 Export guides on Carpet industry, Saffron, Dry fruits & nuts, Fresh fruits & Vegetables, and Afghan Handicrafts. The translated guides were aimed to help Afghan exporters understand the market situation for each Afghan product in the Region, European and Global markets. The guides also outlined a step-by-step export process by Air and by Ground within Afghanistan and at the border gates as well as narrated the Import regulations for Afghan products in the Regional, European, and Global markets.
ASMO under the Sustaining Health Outcomes through the Private Sector (SHOPS) Plus project led by Abt. Associates Inc., with intention to seek eligible and reliable partners for distribution of its health products throughout the country, contracted TAGHEER Mosbat to conduct a feasibility assessment of commercial distributors of health services and medicine in Afghanistan. TAGHEER conducted the feasibility assessment in five major cities of Afghanistan including Herat, Jalalabad, Kabul, Kandahar, and Mazar-e-Sharif.
Oxfam contracted TAGHEER to transcribe, translate and analyze the field data their field staff collected through a HH survey, Success Stories and FGDs for the project “Amplify Change”, which was to Support Women’s Rights in Afghanistan.
TAGHEER conducted around 60 Focus Group Discussions with 483 people from PEDs, DEDs, CDCs, Women Committees, Literacy departments, Citizen charter shuras, People with disabilities, IDPs, Saving groups, Parents, and Teachers to contribute to a Non-formal education sub-sector analysis for UNESCO to help them fine-tune the Ministry of Education strategic plan for non-formal education in Afghanistan. In turn, this was to engage adults above 15 years (skilled and competent citizens), who lack a formal education to address their life and work needs.
TAGHEER implemented the Export Management Assessment & Coaching Assignment for Four export SMEs to understand their business situation, trade / export gaps and prepare them for export management, cope with export challenges inside Afghanistan and beyond the border. TAGHEER also provided them with information on the application of labelling, packaging customs clearance, and freight forwarding to enhance production and performance efficiencies. This assignment was done under the umbrella of the EU-funded Enhancing Afghan Trade program.
TAGHEER in partnership with Afghanistan Center for Excellence worked jointly to assess the demand and supply aspects of the labor market. A refresher LMA was conducted to fill the gaps of the earlier LMA carried out in 2018 and to particularly inform the TAALIM program partners (Mercy Corps, DRC, AKF and DACAAR) about the insights of market players / employers for newly emerging / innovative skills via semi-structured interviews in 12 provinces.
In 2013, TAGHEER’s Founder Syed Kamal contributed as a team member to evaluating Afghanistan’s agricultural sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) program; worth $2,175,242. The Afghanistan Agricultural Sanitary and Phytosanitary Program (SPS Program), funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA/FAS) and implemented by Purdue University, aimed to support the Government of Afghanistan’s Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock (MAIL) in building SPS capacity nationally. The evaluation also guided USDA for mid-program changes needed to realign activities to the overall goals and objectives of SPS. https://www.tagheer.af/2018/12/sps-evaluation-report/
TAGHEER conducted market research in Istanbul-Turkey and identified a need for creating an ecosystem, supposed to be more reliable and cost-effective for clients and companies. The research recommended opening a small Afghan-led and managed consultancy business to help foreigners especially Afghans with legal issues, property management processes, trade, tourism, and capacity development services in Turkey.
TAGHEER’s Founder, Mr. Syed Kamal assisted the Australia Afghanistan Community Resilience Scheme (AACRS) in the capacity of strategic advisor to ensure robust coordination among five project NGO partners (OXFAM, CARE, World Vision, Action Aid, and AKF-A); coordination with Local and National government of Afghanistan, and report regularly on the scheme achievements and challenges to DFAT. He also assisted the NGO partners and DFAT for a cross learning opportunity strategy paper to enhance partnership between the Australian Government, the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GIROA), and five specialist international development organizations (NGOPs); AKF-A, World Vision Australia, Care, Oxfam, and Action Aid in 13 Central and Northern provinces to help the NGO partners to apply the best practices of other partners in the scheme and avoid failures.
ITC implemented the EU-funded Advancing Afghan Trade project in Afghanistan. ITC contracted Syed Kamal, the TAGHEER Founder to strengthen the capacity of exporters to manage and handle export procedures in Afghanistan and cross-border requirements for increasing the exports volume and quality. Mr. Kamal developed guides for five (5) key export sectors in Afghanistan; carpets, handicrafts, saffron, fruits and vegetables, and dry fruits and medicinal herbs. The assignment included the development of national export procedures guides for each priority sector, where key formalities, documents, and procedural requirements were detailed in user-friendly manuals.
TAGHEER’s Founder, Mr. Kamal analyzed the SME framework for Aga Khan Foundation. He assisted AKF to strengthen and broaden their understanding of the SME sector in Afghanistan. The study was focused to help AKF develop a more robust understanding of the market, future pipeline (sources and scope) and financial ecosystem available for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and their relevance to future programs planned by AKDN in Afghanistan. The two planned programs to start were Enterprise Growth Accelerator (EGA) and Enterprise Development Platform (EDP).